Virtual particle
In physics, a virtual particle is an explanatory conceptual entity that is found in mathematical calculations about quantum field theory. It refers to mathematical terms that have some appearance of r...
Quantum scientists create light from vacuum
Scientists at Chalmers have succeeded in creating light from vacuum – observing an effect first predicted over 40 years ago. The results have been published in the journal Nature. In an innovative exp...
Pair production
Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle, for example an electron and its antiparticle, the positron, a muon and antimuon, or a tau and antitau. Usually it occurs...
Unruh effect
The hypothetical Unruh effect (or sometimes Fulling–Davies–Unruh effect) is the prediction that an accelerating observer will observe black-body radiation where an inertial observer would observe none...
Vacuum genesis
Vacuum genesis (zero-energy universe) is a scientific theory about the Big Bang that states that the universe began as a single particle arising from an absolute vacuum, similar to how virtual particl...
Gluon
Gluons /ˈɡluːɒnz/ are elementary particles that act as the exchange particles (or gauge bosons) for the strong force between quarks, analogous to the exchange of photons in the electromagnetic force b...
Gluon - Wikipedia
QCD vacuum
The QCD vacuum is the vacuum state of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It is an example of a non-perturbative vacuum state, characterized by infinitely many non-vanishing condensates such as the gluon co...
Photon
A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation. It is the force carrier for the electromagnetic force, even when static via virtual photons. ...
Photon - Wikipedia
Graviton
In physics, the graviton is a hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravitation in the framework of quantum field theory. If it exists, the graviton is expected to be massless (b...
Tunnel junction
In electronics, a tunnel junction is a barrier, such as a thin insulating layer or electric potential, between two electrically conducting materials. Electrons (or quasiparticles) pass through the bar...
Tunnel junction - Wikipedia
Casimir effect
A water wave analogue of the Casimir effect. Two parallel plates are submerged into colored water contained in a sonicator. When the sonicator is turned on, waves are excited imitating vacuum fluctu...
Casimir effect - Wikipedia
QED vacuum
The quantum electrodynamic vacuum or QED vacuum is the field-theoretic vacuum of quantum electrodynamics. It is the lowest energy state (the ground state) of the electromagnetic field when the fields ...
QED vacuum - Wikipedia
Classical and quantum conductivity
Classical and quantum mechanical views of conductivity have both described the movements of electrons in a metallic solid. The free electron gas that is present in metallic solids is the reason for an...
Quantum tunnelling
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) refers to the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically could not surmount. This plays an ...
Quantum tunnelling - Wikipedia
Zero-point energy
Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state. All quantum mec...
Field electron emission
Field emission (FE) (also known as field electron emission and electron field emission) is emission of electrons induced by an electrostatic field. The most common context is field emission from a sol...
Field electron emission - Wikipedia
Superfluid vacuum theory
Superfluid vacuum theory (SVT), sometimes known as the BEC vacuum theory, is an approach in theoretical physics and quantum mechanics where the fundamental physical vacuum (non-removable background) i...
Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics)
In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one. The id...
Quantum foam
Quantum foam (also referred to as space-time foam) is a concept in quantum mechanics devised by John Wheeler in 1955. The foam is supposed to be conceptualized as the foundation of the fabric of the u...
Quantum annealing
Quantum annealing (QA) is a metaheuristic for finding the global minimum of a given objective function over a given set of candidate solutions (candidate states), by a process using quantum fluctuatio...
Quantum annealing - Wikipedia
Dielectric barrier discharge
Dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) is the electrical discharge between two electrodes separated by an insulating dielectric barrier. Originally called silent (inaudible) discharge and also known as oz...
Dielectric barrier discharge - Wikipedia
Superconducting tunnel junction
The superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) — also known as a superconductor–insulator–superconductor tunnel junction (SIS) — is an electronic device consisting of two superconductors separated by a ve...
Superconducting tunnel junction - Wikipedia
Gauge boson
In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature. Elementary particles, whose interactions are described by a gauge ...
Scharnhorst effect
The Scharnhorst effect is a hypothetical phenomenon in which light signals travel faster than c between two closely spaced conducting plates. It was predicted by Klaus Scharnhorst of the Humboldt Univ...
Meson
In particle physics, mesons (/ˈmiːzɒnz/ or /ˈmɛzɒnz/) are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by the strong interaction. Because mesons are composed of...
Static forces and virtual-particle exchange
Static force fields are fields, such as a simple electric, magnetic or gravitational fields, that exist without excitations. The most common approximation method that physicists use for scattering cal...
Static forces and virtual-particle exchange - Wikipedia
Holstein-Herring method
The Holstein–Herring method, also called the Surface Integral method, also called Smirnov's method is an effective means of getting the exchange energy splittings of asymptotically degenerate energy s...
Holstein-Herring method - Wikipedia
Uncertainty principle
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle, also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with ...
Uncertainty principle - Wikipedia
Spontaneous symmetry breaking
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a mode of realization of symmetry breaking in a physical system, where the underlying laws are invariant under a symmetry transformation, but the system as a whole cha...
Spontaneous symmetry breaking - Wikipedia
Vacuum state
In quantum field theory, the vacuum state (also called the vacuum) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy. Generally, it contains no physical particles. Zero-point field is sometimes use...
Quantum fluctuation
The video of an experiment showing vacuum fluctuations (in the red ring) amplified by spontaneous parametric down-conversion.In quantum physics, a quantum fluctuation (or quantum vacuum fluctuation ...