Vowel height
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English ah! /ɑː/ or oh! /oʊ/, pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the gl...
Vowel height - Wikipedia
Roundedness
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel. It is labialization of a vowel. When pronouncing a rounded vowel, the lips form a circu...
Roundedness - Wikipedia
Nasal vowel
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through nose as well as the mouth. By contrast, oral vowels are vowels without this nasalization. As ex...
Nasalization
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth. An arch...
Phonation
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics. Among some phoneticians, phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through qu...
Phonation - Wikipedia
Advanced and retracted tongue root
In phonetics, advanced tongue root and retracted tongue root, abbreviated ATR or RTR, are contrasting states of the root of the tongue during the pronunciation of vowels in some languages, especially ...
Advanced and retracted tongue root - Wikipedia
Pharyngealization
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet...
R-colored vowel
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a vocalic r or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant. R-colored...
R-colored vowel - Wikipedia
Tenseness
In phonology, tenseness is a particular vowel quality that is phonemically contrastive in many languages, including English, in which the tongue is positioned close to the roof of the mouth. It has al...
Prosody (linguistics)
In linguistics, prosody (from Ancient Greek προσῳδία prosōidía [prosɔː(i)díaː], "song sung to music; tone or accent of a syllable") is the rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech. Prosody may reflec...
Intonation (linguistics)
In linguistics, intonation is variation of spoken pitch that is not used to distinguish words; instead it is used for a range of functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker,...
Monophthong
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up o...
Monophthong - Wikipedia
Diphthong
American English pronunciation of no highway cowboys, showing five diphthongs: /oʊ aɪ eɪ aʊ ɔɪ/A diphthong (/ˈdɪfθɒŋ/ DIF-thong or /ˈdɪpθɒŋ/ DIP-thong) (Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two...
Diphthong - Wikipedia
Triphthong
In phonetics, a triphthong (/ˈtrɪfθɒŋ/ or /ˈtrɪpθɒŋ/) (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quic...
Semivowel
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary rather than as the nucleus of a syllable. In English, t...
Writing system
A writing system is an organized, regular method (typically standardized) of information storage and transfer for the communication of verbal messages (expressing thoughts or ideas) in a language ...
Writing system - Wikipedia
Logogram
A logogram, or logograph, is a grapheme which represents a word or a morpheme (the smallest meaningful unit of language). This stands in contrast to phonograms, which represent phonemes (speech sounds...
Logogram - Wikipedia
Register (phonology)
In phonology, a register or pitch register is a prosodic feature of syllables in certain languages, in which tone, vowel phonation, glottalization, or similar features depend upon each other. Burmese,...
Mirror writing
Mirror writing is formed by writing in the direction that is the reverse of the natural way for a given language, such that the result is the mirror image of normal writing: it appears normal when it ...
Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts
Many East Asian scripts can be written horizontally or vertically. The Chinese, Japanese and Korean scripts can be oriented in either direction, as they consist mainly of disconnected syllabic units, ...
Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts - Wikipedia
Finnish phonology
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in Häme Province in central south Finland. Standard Finnish is used by professional s...
Finnish phonology - Wikipedia
Estonian phonology
Estonian (eesti keel [ˈeːsti ˈkeːl]) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people in Estonia and tens of thousands in various migrant communities. It belongs to the...
Estonian phonology - Wikipedia
Romanian phonology
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants. In addition, as with all languages, ot...
IPA chart for English dialects
This concise chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent English language pronunciations.See Pronunciation respelling for English for phonetic tr...
Consonant
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are [p], pronounced with the lips; [t], pronounced with the f...
Rhotic and non-rhotic accents
English accents are commonly divided into two main groups: rhotic speakers pronounce a historical rhotic consonant (/r/) in all instances, whereas non-rhotic speakers pronounce /r/ only before or betw...
Rhotic and non-rhotic accents - Wikipedia
Right-to-left
In a right-to-left, top-to-bottom script (commonly shortened to right to left or abbreviated RTL), writing starts from the right of the page and continues to the left. Examples of right-to-left scri...
Abugida
An abugida /ˌɑːbuːˈɡiːdə/ (from Ge'ez አቡጊዳ ’äbugida), also called an alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a con...
Abugida - Wikipedia
Bi-directional text
Bi-directional text is text containing text in both text directionalities, both right-to-left (RTL or dextrosinistral) and left-to-right (LTR or sinistrodextral). It generally involves text containing...
Bi-directional text - Wikipedia
Alphabet
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) which is used to write one or more languages based on the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic sig...
Alphabet - Wikipedia